HIPS-HD, ELBOWS-ED x-ray

If you wish your dog become a breeding dog, in Slovenia we need to make x-ray for hips (HD) and elbows (ED). Good to check is also OCD (shoulders) and knees. Our dogs make a breeding licence under the Club SKVPM. (BREEDING RULES)

For breeding are dogs with Hip Score A or B, possible is also C. Markings in some countries are different.

During the period of growth of the pup, it is necessary to be very careful with too much activity and effort due to the rapid gaining of size and weight. Walking up the stairs, running wild, jumping with other dogs or hard trainings are forbitten. Walking with us and easy running are welcome. During the period of growth, we can produce many damage to the skeleton and ligaments. 

Food must be rich with animal proteins.

DISEASES THAT CAN BE PREVENTED BY THE RIGHT BREEDING COMBINATION (HUU, JLPP

Genetic test: The method used for testing is extremely accurate and allows complete differentiation between affected animals, carriers and healthy dogs. Testing can be done at any age. EDTA whole blood (1.0 ml) or buccal swabs. (EVG Maribor - www.eurovetgene.com; LABOKLIN) (GENETIC TESTS)

Hyperuricosurie (HUU)

WHAT IS JLPP: Hyperuricosurie (HUU) Hyperuricosurie is a disease characterised by excessive excretion of uric acid into the urine, leading to formation of uric acid stones. The disease is caused by mutation G563T in SLC2A9 gene that codes for uric acid transport protein expressed in kidneys. The mutation was first discoverd in Dalmatian dogs. However in wider population screen it was also found frequently in Bulldog, Black Russian Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier as well as retrievers. Mutation is present in many other breeds. 

INHERITANCE: Autosomal recessive Autosomal recessive Autosomal recessive means that a trait is carried on »non-sex« chromosome (autosome) and that a trait is expressed only when both alleles (inherited from mother and father) are damaged (contain detrimental mutation). There are three possible genetic combinations in population of such individuals: homozygotes that carry two normal alleles, homozygote that carry two mutated alleles and heterozygote that carry normal and mutated allele. Heterozygotes in this case are the carriers of mutation since they do not express the disease (unwanted trait). It is especially important to test such animals for mutations, since mutated alleles are »silently« (without seeing unwanted phenotype) carried through the population and therefore enable out breeding of such mutations from population.

Regarding to the presence of mutations dogs are classified into three groups:

  • Affected (mut/mut)-both alleles carry mutation, disease is clinically expressed 
  • Carrier (mut/wt)- one of two alleles carry mutation, disease is not clinically expressed
  • Wild type (wt/wt)- mutation is not detected, normal genotype, healthy animal

ALLOWED COMBINATIONS:

parents N/N +N/N = puppies 100% N/N
parents N/N +N/HU = puppies 50% N/N, 50% N/HU
parents N/N + HU/HU = puppies 100% N/HU

NOT ALLOWED COMBINATIONS:

parents N/HU + N/HU = puppies 25% N/N, 50% N/HU, 25% HU/HU
parents N/HU +HU/HU = puppies 50% N/HU, 50% HU/HU
parents: HU/HU +HU/HU = puppies 100% HU/HU

 

Juvenile Laryngeal Paralysis & Polyneuropathy (JLPP)

WHAT IS JLPP: Juvenile Laryngeal Paralysis & Polyneuropathy (JLPP) of Black Russian Terriers is a juvenile-onset neuronal disease. As the longest nerves are often affected first, laryngeal paralysis is usually the first change that can be seen. Symptoms include difficulties in breathing and swallowing, which can cause serious pneumonia. Back legs are affected next. Dogs have difficulties when getting up and wobble as they walk. As the disease progresses, dogs with JLPP can become unable to walk at all. Other symptoms include ocular changes and sensory ataxia.

INHERITANCE: Autosomal recessive Autosomal recessive Autosomal recessive means that a trait is carried on »non-sex« chromosome (autosome) and that a trait is expressed only when both alleles (inherited from mother and father) are damaged (contain detrimental mutation). There are three possible genetic combinations in population of such individuals: homozygotes that carry two normal alleles, homozygote that carry two mutated alleles and heterozygote that carry normal and mutated allele. Heterozygotes in this case are the carriers of mutation since they do not express the disease (unwanted trait). It is especially important to test such animals for mutations, since mutated alleles are »silently« (without seeing unwanted phenotype) carried through the population and therefore enable out breeding of such mutations from population.

Regarding to the presence of mutations dogs are classified into three groups:

  • Affected (JLPP/JLPP or mut/mut)-both alleles carry mutation, disease is clinically expressed (PUUPY USUALLY DIE BEFORE 1 YEAR)
  • Carrier (N/JLPP or mut/wt)- one of two alleles carry mutation, disease is not clinically expressed
  • Wild type (clear-N/N or wt/wt)- mutation is not detected, normal genotype, healthy animal

ALLOWED COMBINATIONS:

parents: clear + clear = puppies: 100% clear 
parents: clear + N/JLPP = puppies: 50% clear, 50% N/JLPP

NOT ALLOWED COMBINATIONS:

parents: N/JLPP + N/JLPP = puppies: 25% clear, 50% N/JLPP, 25% JLPP/JLPP

 

COAT COLOURS AND QUALITY

Many breeds with different coat colours were used in the creation of the Black Russian Terrier breed. Therefore, a certain combination of parents can produce pups, where in addition to the characteristic and standard black, other different colors are expressed (Black, later Blue, Black and Tan, Fawn/Sable, Cloudy/Blue, Saddle, White, Red). If we want to prevent this, we can do genetic tests. The test is most commonly performed for Locus K, but can also be performed for Locus A, D, and E.

Lokus K: KB allele (dominant black) codes for uniform coat coloration. Mutation does not allow expression of A locus, which results in solid pigmented regions. Because of dominant mode of inheritance, only one allele is necessary for suppression of A locus. Homozygous or heterozygous dog will express only basic coat colour determined by genotypes on B and E locus.B K locus is dominant over A locus and therefore determines if colours coded on A locus will be expressed. Expression of K locus depends on E locus genotypes. Three different alleles are described on K locus with following hierarchy: KB (dominant black) >br kbr (brindle) >y ky (normal).

(Text source: EVG, Molekularna Diagnostika Maribor) (GENETIC TESTS)

Genotype Description
KB/KB: Dog is homozygous for uniform coat coloration in pigmented areas, and transfers KB allelesBto all of its puppies; agouti and brindle coat patterns are not expressed.
KB/n: Dog is heterozygous for uniform coat coloration in pigmented areas, and transfers KB allelesBto half of its puppies; agouti and brindle coat patterns are not expressed due to dominant KB allele.
n/n: Colour is defined by A locus;B in breeds that express brindle pattern the colour can also depend on kbr allele (kbr allele can be determined by a combined analysis of K locus genetic test and coat colour).

 

At the moment tests for six key loci, which determine coat colours in dogs, are available. There are some additional loci that are involved in coat coloration, but there are no tests available. Genetic tests provide information about genotypes on certain loci and identify recessive alleles, which are not expressed in coat colour. Each locus has two alleles, one inherited from mother and one from father. If both alleles are identical, the animal is homozygous. If two different alleles are present, the animal is heterozygous and expresses dominant allele. Information about genotypes on certain loci enables breeders to mate their dogs with expected results (coat colour).

More information about the function of each individual locus can be found in the description of the test, website: EVG Maribor

E locus (yellow-red vs. black)
Locus EM(melanistic mask)
B locus (chocolate or liver brown)
K locus (determines whether A locus is expressed)
A locus (agouti, affecting pigment distribution)
D locus (dilution, affecting pigment intensity)

CHART: dog coat colour loci

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